A urologist is a medical specialist who focuses on diagnosing and treating conditions and diseases related to the urinary tract and male reproductive system. They provide both medical and surgical care for a wide range of urological conditions. Urologists undergo extensive medical education and training. They complete a bachelor's degree followed by four years of medical school to earn a medical degree (MD or DO). Afterward, they undergo a residency program in urology, which typically lasts five years. Some urologists may pursue additional fellowship training to specialize in a specific area within urology. Urologists employ various diagnostic procedures to assess and diagnose urological conditions. These may include physical examinations, laboratory tests (such as urine analysis and blood tests), imaging studies (such as ultrasound, CT scans, or MRI), and specialized procedures like cystoscopy (inserting a thin tube with a camera into the urethra to view the bladder and urethra). Urologists provide both medical and surgical treatments for urological conditions. They may prescribe medications, recommend lifestyle modifications, or provide interventions such as minimally invasive procedures or surgery. Urologists are skilled in performing surgical procedures specific to the urinary tract and male reproductive system, including prostate surgery, kidney stone removal, and bladder surgeries.